What are the classes within the Environmental hazard group?
There are two main environmental hazard classes according to the GHS for classifying chemicals:
- Hazardous to the aquatic environment (acute and chronic).
The harmonized classification system for substances includes three acute and four chronic classification categories, which are applied independently.
Acute aquatic toxicity is the natural quality of a substance or a mixture to cause damage to an aquatic organism in a short-term exposure. Each hazardous chemical is classified in one of three categories according to a fish 96 hour LC50, a crustacea species 48 hour EC50 and/or an algal species 72 or 96 hour ErC50 data. Scientists use these particular species, because they can efficiently represent all aquatic organisms.
Chronic aquatic toxicity refers to the potential or actual properties of a substance or a mixture to cause harmful effects to aquatic organisms during exposures throughout the lifecycle of the organism. Each hazardous chemical is assigned to one of four toxicity categories according to acute data and environmental fate data: LC50 (fish) or EC50 (crustacea) or ErC50 (for algae or other aquatic plants) and degradation/bioaccumulation.
Label Elements for Hazardous to the Aquatic Environment
|Category 1||Category 2||Category 3|
|Symbol||Fish and Tree||No symbol is used||No symbol is used|
|Signal Word||Warning||No signal word isused||No signal word is used|
|Hazard Statement||Very toxic toaquatic life||Toxic to aquaticlife||Harmful to aquatic life|
|Category 1||Category 2||Category 3||Category 4|
|Symbol||Fish and Tree||Fish and Tree||No symbol is used||No symbol is used|
|Signal Word||Warning||No signal word isused||No signal word is used||No signal word is used|
|Hazard Statement||Very toxic toaquatic life with long lasting effects||Toxic to aquaticLife with long lasting effects||Harmful to aquatic lifewith long lasting effects||May cause long lasting effects to aquatic life|
- Hazardous to the ozone layer
A substance is classified as Category 1, if it is listed in Annexes of the Montreal Protocol (this protocol presents the substances that deplete the Ozone Layer and it is adjusted and amended by the meetings of the Parties). Likewise, if a mixture contains at least one ingredient classified as hazardous to the ozone layer at a concentration ≥ 0.1%, it is classified in the same category.
Label Elements for Hazardous to the Ozone Layer
|Hazard statement||Harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere|